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The Cannons in BleidenstadtSeán Cannon, einstiger Sänger der Dubliners, und seine Söhne präsentieren im ausverkauften Salon-Theater in Bleidenstadt. Seán Cannon (* November in Galway) ist ein irischer Sänger und Gitarrist. Bekanntheit erlangte er vor allem durch seine Mitgliedschaft bei der Irish. The Cannons. K likes. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and bordercolliedatabase.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been.
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The "Decretum pro Jacobitis" contains a complete list of the books received by the Church as inspired, but omits, perhaps advisedly, the terms canon and canonical.
The Council of Florence therefore taught the inspiration of all the Scriptures, but did not formally pass on their canonicity.
It was not until the Protestant Reformers began to insist upon the supreme authority of Scripture alone the doctrine of sola scriptura that it became necessary to establish a dogmatic canon.
Martin Luther — moved seven Old Testament books Tobit, Judith, 1—2 Maccabees, Book of Wisdom, Sirach, and Baruch into a section he called the " Apocrypha , that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read".
Luther removed the books of Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation from the canon partially because some were perceived to go against certain Protestant doctrines such as sola scriptura and sola fide ,  [ failed verification ] while defenders of Luther cite previous scholarly precedent and support as the justification for his marginalization of certain books,  including 2 Maccabees  Luther's smaller canon was not fully accepted in Protestantism, though apocryphal books are ordered last in the German-language Luther Bible to this day.
All of these apocrypha are called anagignoskomena by the Eastern Orthodox per the Synod of Jerusalem. The Anglican Communion accepts "the Apocrypha for instruction in life and manners, but not for the establishment of doctrine",  and many "lectionary readings in The Book of Common Prayer are taken from the Apocrypha", with these lessons being "read in the same ways as those from the Old Testament".
In light of Martin Luther 's demands, the Council of Trent on 8 April approved the present Catholic Bible canon, which includes the Deuterocanonical Books , and the decision was confirmed by an anathema by vote 24 yea, 15 nay, 16 abstain.
Beyond these books, the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate contained in the Appendix several books considered as apocryphal by the council: Prayer of Manasseh , 3 Esdras , and 4 Esdras.
Several Protestant confessions of faith identify the 27 books of the New Testament canon by name, including the French Confession of Faith ,  the Belgic Confession , and the Westminster Confession of Faith The Belgic Confession  and Westminster Confession named the 39 books in the Old Testament and, apart from the aforementioned New Testament books, expressly rejected the canonicity of any others.
The Lutheran Epitome of the Formula of Concord of declared that the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures comprised the Old and New Testaments alone.
Various books that were never canonized by any church, but are known to have existed in antiquity, are similar to the New Testament and often claim apostolic authorship, are known as the New Testament apocrypha.
Some of these writings have been cited as scripture by early Christians, but since the fifth century a widespread consensus has emerged limiting the New Testament to the 27 books of the modern canon.
Other traditions, while also having closed canons, may not be able to point to an exact year in which their canons were complete. The following tables reflect the current state of various Christian canons.
Among Aramaic speakers, the Targum was also widely used. All of the major Christian traditions accept the books of the Hebrew protocanon in its entirety as divinely inspired and authoritative, in various ways and degrees.
Another set of books, largely written during the intertestamental period , are called the biblical apocrypha "hidden things" by Protestants, the deuterocanon "second canon" by Catholics, and the deuterocanon or anagignoskomena "worthy of reading" by Orthodox.
These are works recognized by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Churches as being part of scripture and thus deuterocanonical rather than apocryphal , but Protestants do not recognize them as divinely inspired.
Orthodox differentiate scriptural books by omitting these and others from corporate worship and from use as a sole basis for doctrine.
Many denominations recognize deuterocanonical books as good, but not on the level of the other books of the Bible. Anglicanism considers the apocrypha worthy of being "read for example of life" but not to be used "to establish any doctrine.
The difference in canons derives from the difference in the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint. Books found in both the Hebrew and the Greek are accepted by all denominations, and by Jews, these are the protocanonical books.
Catholics and Orthodox also accept those books present in manuscripts of the Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament with great currency among the Jews of the ancient world, with the coda that Catholics consider 3 Esdras and 3 Maccabees apocryphal.
Most quotations of the Old Testament in the New Testament, differing by varying degrees from the Masoretic Text, are taken from the Septuagint.
Daniel was written several hundred years after the time of Ezra, and since that time several books of the Septuagint have been found in the original Hebrew, in the Dead Sea Scrolls , the Cairo Geniza , and at Masada , including a Hebrew text of Sirach Qumran, Masada and an Aramaic text of Tobit Qumran ; the additions to Esther and Daniel are also in their respective Semitic languages.
The unanimous consensus of modern and ancient scholars consider several other books, including 1 Maccabees and Judith, to have been composed in Hebrew or Aramaic.
Some books listed here, like the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs for the Armenian Apostolic Church, may have once been a vital part of a Biblical tradition, may even still hold a place of honor, but are no longer considered to be part of the Bible.
Other books, like the Prayer of Manasseh for the Roman Catholic Church, may have been included in manuscripts, but never really attained a high level of importance within that particular tradition.
The levels of traditional prominence for others, like Psalms — and the Psalms of Solomon of the Syriac churches, remain unclear. However, it is not always clear as to how these writings are arranged or divided.
In some lists, they may simply fall under the title "Jeremiah", while in others, they are divided in various ways into separate books.
Moreover, the book of Proverbs is divided into two books—Messale Prov. Additionally, while the books of Jubilees and Enoch are fairly well known among western scholars, 1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan are not.
The three books of Meqabyan are often called the "Ethiopian Maccabees", but are completely different in content from the books of Maccabees that are known or have been canonized in other traditions.
Finally, the Book of Joseph ben Gurion, or Pseudo-Josephus , is a history of the Jewish people thought to be based upon the writings of Josephus. Additional books accepted by the Syriac Orthodox Church due to inclusion in the Peshitta :.
The Ethiopian Tewahedo church accepts all of the deuterocanonical books of Catholicism and anagignoskomena of Eastern Orthodoxy except for the four Books of Maccabees.
Protestants and Catholics  use the Masoretic Text of the Jewish Tanakh as the textual basis for their translations of the protocanonical books those accepted as canonical by both Jews and all Christians , with various changes derived from a multiplicity of other ancient sources such as the Septuagint , the Vulgate , the Dead Sea Scrolls , etc.
The Eastern Orthodox use the Septuagint translated in the 3rd century BCE as the textual basis for the entire Old Testament in both protocanonical and deuteroncanonical books—to use both in the Greek for liturgical purposes, and as the basis for translations into the vernacular.
The spelling and names in both the — Douay Old Testament and in the Rheims New Testament and the revision by Bishop Challoner the edition currently in print used by many Catholics, and the source of traditional Catholic spellings in English and in the Septuagint differ from those spellings and names used in modern editions that derive from the Hebrew Masoretic text.
The King James Version references some of these books by the traditional spelling when referring to them in the New Testament, such as "Esaias" for Isaiah.
In the spirit of ecumenism more recent Catholic translations e. The order of the books of the Torah are universal through all denominations of Judaism and Christianity.
Among the various Christian denominations , the New Testament canon is a generally agreed-upon list of 27 books. However, the way in which those books are arranged may vary from tradition to tradition.
For instance, in the Slavonic, Orthodox Tewahedo, Syriac, and Armenian traditions, the New Testament is ordered differently from what is considered to be the standard arrangement.
However, those books are included in certain Bibles of the modern Syriac traditions. Other New Testament works that are generally considered apocryphal nonetheless appear in some Bibles and manuscripts.
For instance, the Epistle to the Laodiceans [note 5] was included in numerous Latin Vulgate manuscripts, in the eighteen German Bibles prior to Luther's translation, and also a number of early English Bibles, such as Gundulf's Bible and John Wycliffe's English translation—even as recently as , William Whiston considered this epistle to be genuinely Pauline.
Likewise, the Third Epistle to the Corinthians [note 6] was once considered to be part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible,  but is no longer printed in modern editions.
Within the Syriac Orthodox tradition, the Third Epistle to the Corinthians also has a history of significance. Both Aphrahat and Ephraem of Syria held it in high regard and treated it as if it were canonical.
The Didache , [note 7] The Shepherd of Hermas , [note 8] and other writings attributed to the Apostolic Fathers , were once considered scriptural by various early Church fathers.
They are still being honored in some traditions, though they are no longer considered to be canonical. However, certain canonical books within the Orthodox Tewahedo traditions find their origin in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers as well as the Ancient Church Orders.
The Orthodox Tewahedo churches recognize these eight additional New Testament books in its broader canon. They are as follows: the four books of Sinodos, the two books of the Covenant, Ethiopic Clement, and the Ethiopic Didascalia.
The Standard Works are printed and distributed by the LDS church in a single binding called a "Quadruple Combination" or a set of two books, with the Bible in one binding , and the other three books in a second binding called a "Triple Combination".
Current editions of the Standard Works include a bible dictionary , photographs, maps and gazetteer , topical guide, index, footnotes, cross references, excerpts from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible and other study aids.
Some accept only portions of the Standard Works. For instance, the Bickertonite sect does not consider the Pearl of Great Price or Doctrines and Covenants to be scriptural.
Rather, they believe that the New Testament scriptures contain a true description of the church as established by Jesus Christ, and that both the King James Bible and Book of Mormon are the inspired word of God.
Others have purportedly received additional revelation. The Community of Christ points to Jesus Christ as the living Word of God,  and it affirms the Bible, along with the Book of Mormon, as well as its own regularly appended version of Doctrines and Covenants as scripture for the church.
The Book of Commandments is accepted as being superior to the Doctrine and Covenants as a compendium of Joseph Smith's early revelations, but is not accorded the same status as the Bible or Book of Mormon.
The latter title messages contains the entirety of the former's material 30 msgs. Draves by this same being, after Fetting's death.
Neither are accepted by the larger Temple Lot body of believers. They also hold the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible to be inspired, but do not believe modern publications of the text are accurate.
Other portions of The Pearl of Great Price, however, are not considered to be scriptural—though are not necessarily fully rejected either.
The Book of Jasher was consistently used by both Joseph Smith and James Strang , but as with other Latter Day Saint denominations and sects, there is no official stance on its authenticity, and it is not considered canonical.
An additional work called The Book of the Law of the Lord is also accepted as inspired scripture by the Strangites. They likewise hold as scriptural several prophecies, visions, revelations, and translations printed by James Strang, and published in the Revelations of James J.
Among other things, this text contains his purported " Letter of Appointment " from Joseph Smith and his translation of the Voree plates.
However, the revelation on tithing section in the edition; in modern LDS editions is emphatically rejected by members of this church, as it is not believed to be given by Joseph Smith.
The Book of Abraham is rejected as scripture, as are the other portions of the Pearl of Great Price that do not appear in the Inspired Version of the Bible.
Many Latter Day Saint denominations have also either adopted the Articles of Faith or at least view them as a statement of basic theology.
At times, the Articles have been adapted to fit the respective belief systems of various faith communities. Media related to Development of the Christian biblical canon at Wikimedia Commons.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the edition of the Bible without chapters and verses, see The Books of the Bible.
Set of texts which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture. Canons and books. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim.
Christian biblical canons. Deuterocanon Antilegomena. Authorship and development. Authorship Dating Hebrew canon. Pauline epistles Petrine epistles.
Translations and manuscripts. Biblical studies. Hermeneutics Pesher Midrash Pardes. Allegorical interpretation Historical-grammatical method Literalism.
Gnostic Islamic Quranic. Inerrancy Infallibility. Main article: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon. Important figures. Religious roles. Culture and education.
Ritual objects. Major holidays. Other religions. Related topics. Main article: Samaritan Pentateuch. Jesus Christ. Nativity Crucifixion Resurrection.
Bible Foundations. History Tradition. Denominations Groups. Main article: Fifty Bibles of Constantine. Main article: Peshitta.
Main articles: Latin Church and Catholic Bible. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Luther's canon.
Main article: Canon of Trent. See also: Protestant Bible. Main articles: Biblical apocrypha and New Testament apocrypha. Main article: Development of the Old Testament canon.
See also: Reception of Enoch in antiquity. Other western churches and movements that have a divergent history from Roman Catholicism, but are not necessarily considered to be historically Protestant, may also fall under this umbrella terminology.
Some Eastern Rite churches who are in fellowship with the Roman Catholic Church may have different books in their canons.
Extra-canonical Old Testament books appear in historical canon lists and recensions that are either exclusive to this tradition, or where they do exist elsewhere, never achieved the same status.
These include the Deaths of the Prophets , an ancient account of the lives of the Old Testament prophets, which is not listed in this table. It is also known as the Lives of the Prophets.
Another writing not listed in this table entitled the Words of Sirach —which is distinct from Ecclesiasticus and its prologue—appears in the appendix of the Armenian Zohrab Bible alongside other, more commonly known works.
Some Protestant Bibles include 3 Maccabees as part of the Apocrypha. However, many churches within Protestantism—as it is presented here—reject the Apocrypha, do not consider it useful, and do not include it in their Bibles.
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Temperature screening will be done upon the arrival of all guests. Chen Bingying argues there were no guns before while Dang Shoushan believes the Wuwei gun and other Western Xia era samples point to the appearance of guns by , and Stephen Haw goes even further by stating that guns were developed as early as References to cannon proliferated throughout China in the following centuries.
Cannon featured in literary pieces. In Xian Zhang wrote a poem called The Iron Cannon Affair describing a cannonball fired from an eruptor which could "pierce the heart or belly when striking a man or horse, and even transfix several persons at once.
The Mongol invasion of Java in brought gunpowder technology to the Nusantara archipelago in the form of cannon Chinese: Pao. In the Ming army failed to take a city due to its garrisons' usage of cannon, however they themselves would use cannon, in the thousands, later on during the siege of Suzhou in During the Ming dynasty cannon were used in riverine warfare at the Battle of Lake Poyang.
The first of the western cannon to be introduced were breech-loaders in the early 16th century which the Chinese began producing themselves by and improved on by including composite metal construction in their making.
Japan did not acquire a cannon until when a monk brought one back from China, and did not produce any in appreciable numbers. Despite their defensive advantage and the use of arquebus by Japanese soldiers, the Japanese were at a severe disadvantage due to their lack of cannon.
Throughout the Japanese invasions of Korea —98 , the Ming-Joseon coalition used artillery widely in land and naval battles, including on the turtle ships of Yi Sun-sin.
His general observation was that the Chinese were militarily capable and had firearms:. There are many merchants and military persons in the Chinese Empire.
They have firearms, and the Chinese are very skillful in military affairs. They go into battle against the Yellow Mongols who fight with bows and arrows.
Outside of China, the earliest texts to mention gunpowder are Roger Bacon 's Opus Majus and Opus Tertium in what has been interpreted as references to firecrackers.
In the early 20th century, a British artillery officer proposed that another work tentatively attributed to Bacon , Epistola de Secretis Operibus Artis et Naturae, et de Nullitate Magiae , also known as Opus Minor , dated to , contained an encrypted formula for gunpowder hidden in the text.
These claims have been disputed by science historians. There is a record of a gun in Europe dating to being discovered in the nineteenth century but the artifact has since been lost.
Scholars suggest that the lack of gunpowder weapons in a well-traveled Venetian's catalogue for a new crusade in implies that guns were unknown in Europe up until this point, further solidifying the mark, however more evidence in this area may be forthcoming in the future.
The oldest extant cannon in Europe is a small bronze example unearthed in Loshult, Scania in southern Sweden. Early cannon in Europe often shot arrows and were known by an assortment of names such as pot-de-fer , tonnoire , ribaldis , and büszenpyle.
The battle of Crecy which pitted the English against the French in featured the early use of cannon which helped the long-bowmen repulse a large force of Genoese crossbowmen deployed by the French.
The English originally intended to use the cannon against cavalry sent to attack their archers, thinking that the loud noises produced by their cannon would panic the advancing horses along with killing the knights atop them.
Early cannon could also be used for more than simply killing men and scaring horses. English cannon were used defensively during the siege of the castle Breteuil to launch fire onto an advancing belfry.
In this way cannon could be used to burn down siege equipment before it reached the fortifications. The use of cannon to shoot fire could also be used offensively as another battle involved the setting of a castle ablaze with similar methods.
The particular incendiary used in these cannon was most likely a gunpowder mixture. This is one area where early Chinese and European cannon share a similarity as both were possibly used to shoot fire.
Another aspect of early European cannon is that they were rather small, dwarfed by the bombards which would come later.
In fact, it is possible that the cannon used at Crecy were capable of being moved rather quickly as there is an anonymous chronicle that notes the guns being used to attack the French camp, indicating that they would have been mobile enough press the attack.
These smaller cannon would eventually give way to larger, wall breaching guns by the end of the s. Documentary evidence of cannon in Russia does not appear until and they were used only in sieges, often by the defenders.
Later on large cannon were known as bombards, ranging from three to five feet in length and were used by Dubrovnik and Kotor in defence during the later 14th century.
Around the same period, the Byzantine Empire began to accumulate its own cannon to face the Ottoman Empire , starting with medium-sized cannon 3 feet 0.
By , the Ottomans used 68 Hungarian-made cannon for the day bombardment of the walls of Constantinople , "hurling the pieces everywhere and killing those who happened to be nearby.
There is no clear consensus of when the cannon first appeared in the Islamic world , with dates ranging from to the midth century.
The cannon may have appeared in the Islamic world in the late 13th century, with Ibn Khaldun in the 14th century stating that cannon were used in the Maghreb region of North Africa in , and other Arabic military treatises in the 14th century referring to the use of cannon by Mamluk forces in and , and by Muslim forces at the Siege of Huesca in Spain.
However, some scholars do not accept these early dates. While the date of its first appearance is not entirely clear, the general consensus among most historians is that there is no doubt the Mamluk forces were using cannon by According to historian Ahmad Y.
He claims that this was "the first cannon in history" and used a gunpowder formula almost identical to the ideal composition for explosive gunpowder.
He also argues that this was not known in China or Europe until much later. Khan argues that it was the Mongols who introduced gunpowder to the Islamic world,  and believes cannon only reached Mamluk Egypt in the s.
Ibn Khaldun reported the use of cannon as siege machines by the Marinid sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf at the siege of Sijilmasa in These balls are ejected from a chamber … placed in front of a kindling fire of gunpowder; this happens by a strange property which attributes all actions to the power of the Creator.
Its interpretation has been rejected as anachronistic by some historians, who urge caution regarding claims of Islamic firearms use in the — period as late medieval Arabic texts used the same word for gunpowder, naft, as they did for an earlier incendiary, naphtha.
The Ottoman Empire made good use of cannon as siege artillery. Sixty-eight super-sized bombards were used by Mehmed the Conqueror to capture Constantinople in Jim Bradbury argues that Urban, a Hungarian cannon engineer, introduced this cannon from Central Europe to the Ottoman realm;  according to Paul Hammer, however, it could have been introduced from other Islamic countries which had earlier used cannon.
The Ottomans also used cannon to control passage of ships through the Bosphorus strait. The similar Dardanelles Guns for the location were created by Munir Ali in and were still in use during the Anglo-Turkish War — Fathullah Shirazi, a Persian inhabitant of India who worked for Akbar in the Mughal Empire , developed a volley gun in the 16th century.
While there is evidence of cannon in Iran as early as they were not widespread. The Javanese Majapahit Empire was arguably able to encompass much of modern-day Indonesia due to its unique mastery of bronze-smithing and use of a central arsenal fed by a large number of cottage industries within the immediate region.
Documentary and archeological evidence indicate that Arab traders introduced gunpowder, gonnes, muskets , blunderbusses , and cannon to the Javanese, Acehnese , and Batak via long established commercial trade routes around the early to mid 14th century.
Javanese bronze breech-loaded swivel-guns, known as cetbang or lantaka , was used widely by the Majapahit navy as well as by pirates and rival lords.
This event led to near universal use of the swivel-gun and cannon in the Nusantara archipelago. Cannon derived from cetbang can be found in Nusantara, among others were lantaka and lela.
Most lantakas were made of bronze and the earliest ones were breech-loaded. There is a trend toward muzzle-loading weapons during colonial times.
Portuguese and Spanish invaders were unpleasantly surprised and even outgunned on occasion. Majapahit-era cetbang cannon were further improved and used in the Demak Sultanate period during the Demak invasion of Portuguese Malacca.
During this period, the iron , for manufacturing Javanese cannon was imported from Khorasan in northern Persia.
The material was known by Javanese as wesi kurasani Khorasan iron. Duarte Barbosa ca. They make many one-pounder cannon cetbang or rentaka , long muskets, spingarde arquebus , schioppi hand cannon , Greek fire , guns cannon , and other fire-works.
Every place are considered excellent in casting artillery, and in the knowledge of using it. Cannon were used by the Ayutthaya Kingdom in during its invasion of the Khmer Empire.
Saltpeter harvesting was recorded by Dutch and German travelers as being common in even the smallest villages and was collected from the decomposition process of large dung hills specifically piled for the purpose.
The Dutch punishment for possession of non-permitted gunpowder appears to have been amputation. Imported from Arabia , and the wider Islamic world, the Adalites led by Ahmed ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi were the first African power to introduce cannon warfare to the African continent.
The conflict proved, through their use on both sides, the value of firearms such as the matchlock musket , cannon, and the arquebus over traditional weapons.
While previous smaller guns could burn down structures with fire, larger cannon were so effective that engineers were forced to develop stronger castle walls to prevent their keeps from falling.
By the 16th century, cannon were made in a great variety of lengths and bore diameters, but the general rule was that the longer the barrel, the longer the range.
Consequently, large amounts of gunpowder were needed to allow them to fire stone balls several hundred yards. Henry II of France opted for six sizes of cannon,  but others settled for more; the Spanish used twelve sizes, and the English sixteen.
Instead of the finely ground powder used by the first bombards, powder was replaced by a "corned" variety of coarse grains. This coarse powder had pockets of air between grains, allowing fire to travel through and ignite the entire charge quickly and uniformly.
The end of the Middle Ages saw the construction of larger, more powerful cannon, as well as their spread throughout the world. As they were not effective at breaching the newer fortifications resulting from the development of cannon, siege engines —such as siege towers and trebuchets —became less widely used.
However, wooden "battery-towers" took on a similar role as siege towers in the gunpowder age—such as that used at Siege of Kazan in , which could hold ten large-calibre cannon, in addition to 50 lighter pieces.
These new defences became known as bastion forts , after their characteristic shape which attempted to force any advance towards it directly into the firing line of the guns.
By the end of the 15th century, several technological advancements made cannon more mobile. Wheeled gun carriages and trunnions became common, and the invention of the limber further facilitated transportation.
Even with this many animals pulling, they still moved at a walking pace. Due to their relatively slow speed, and lack of organisation, and undeveloped tactics, the combination of pike and shot still dominated the battlefields of Europe.
Innovations continued, notably the German invention of the mortar , a thick-walled, short-barrelled gun that blasted shot upward at a steep angle.
Mortars were useful for sieges, as they could hit targets behind walls or other defences. Setting the bomb fuse was a problem.
This often resulted in the fuse being blown into the bomb, causing it to blow up as it left the mortar.
Because of this, "double firing" was tried where the gunner lit the fuse and then the touch hole. This, however, required considerable skill and timing, and was especially dangerous if the gun misfired, leaving a lighted bomb in the barrel.
Not until was it accidentally discovered that double-lighting was superfluous as the heat of firing would light the fuse.
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden emphasised the use of light cannon and mobility in his army, and created new formations and tactics that revolutionised artillery.
He discontinued using all 12 pounder—or heavier—cannon as field artillery, preferring, instead, to use cannon that could be handled by only a few men.
One obsolete type of gun, the "leatheren" was replaced by 4 pounder and 9 pounder demi-culverins. These could be operated by three men, and pulled by only two horses.
Gustavus Adolphus's army was also the first to use a cartridge that contained both powder and shot which sped up reloading, increasing the rate of fire.
Each regiment was assigned two pieces, though he often arranged them into batteries instead of distributing them piecemeal.
He used these batteries to break his opponent's infantry line, while his cavalry would outflank their heavy guns.
At the Battle of Breitenfeld , in , Adolphus proved the effectiveness of the changes made to his army, by defeating Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly.
Although severely outnumbered, the Swedes were able to fire between three and five times as many volleys of artillery, and their infantry's linear formations helped ensure they didn't lose any ground.
Battered by cannon fire, and low on morale, Tilly's men broke ranks and fled. In England cannon were being used to besiege various fortified buildings during the English Civil War.
Nathaniel Nye is recorded as testing a Birmingham cannon in and experimenting with a saker in Around this time also came the idea of aiming the cannon to hit a target.
Gunners controlled the range of their cannon by measuring the angle of elevation, using a "gunner's quadrant. It was only in the years prior to World War I that new works began to break radically away from his designs.
By the end of the 18th century, principles long adopted in Europe specified the characteristics of the Royal Navy 's cannon, as well as the acceptable defects, and their severity.
The United States Navy tested guns by measuring them, firing them two or three times—termed "proof by powder"—and using pressurized water to detect leaks.The Cannons. Gefällt Mal. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and bordercolliedatabase.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been. The Cannons. K likes. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and bordercolliedatabase.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been. The Cannons - Seán Cannon prägte mit seiner Stimme dreißig Jahre lang den Sound der Irish Folk-Gruppe The Dubliners, welche sich in ihrer fünfzigjährigen. In der Kulturscheune in Salzgitter-Lebenstedt treten The Cannons am Samstag, Februar, ab Uhr im Rahmen der Reihe "Scheune. Main article: History of cannon. Osprey Publishing. Retrieved 2 May Cannon featured prominently as siege weapons and ever larger pieces appeared. In a 16, kg (35, lbs) cannon known as the Great Turkish Bombard was created in the Ottoman Empire. Cannon as field artillery became more important after with the introduction of limber, which greatly improved cannon maneuverability and mobility. Cannons | Official Site. Skip Navigation or Skip to Content. Cannons. Stream / Watch / Shows Contact / Join / Store. Cannon is an American detective television series produced by Quinn Martin that aired from to on CBS. William Conrad played the title character, private detective Frank Cannon. The series was the first Quinn Martin production to run on a network other than ABC. Welcome to The Canons CE Primary School As a Christian place of learning our vision is for The Canons C.E. Primary School to be a happy place where: • all conduct themselves in a manner that is respectful of others, acting responsibly and considerately, clearly demonstrating an understanding of right and wrong. • a Christian, caring ethos pervades every aspect of school life and helps to create an inclusive environment in which all feel loved and valued. • all develop confidence in. The Cannon is the perfect place to grow your business. Join today and connect with entrepreneurs, startups, investors, advisors, service providers and potential partners. Plus, receive access to a variety of content, programs and events purpose-built to help innovators of all types transform their companies and communities. Cannons. 13, likes · talking about this. With loads of enthusiasm and a life-long raw passion for music, Cannons, a new indie-electro band, found one another in in Los Angeles, CA. Directed by: Easton Schirrabordercolliedatabase.com://bordercolliedatabase.com://bordercolliedatabase.com Since , The Cannons have provided a boutique wedding photography experience for their couples in Cleveland, Ohio and beyond. The Cannons create bright, joyful, and timeless images for kindhearted couples. Get to know The Cannons and their fun loving personalities on the website, blog, and of course on instagram through their daily posts!